## Spectral analysis - How do we use the spectrometer?

Reading time: 4 minute A device built specifically for displaying - not controlling - the amplitude of each frequency of a signal consisting of several frequencies, is called a spectral analyzer, and the process of analyzing a signal in this way is called spectral analysis.

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## Analysis of a rectangular signal

Reading time: 4 minute Rectangular waveforms are equivalent to a sinusoidal waveform of the same (fundamental) frequency summed up with an infinite series of sinusoidal (harmonic) waves of multiple odd frequencies of the fundamental.

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## Electric pendulum - LC circuit

Reading time: 6 minute A capacitor and a coil connected together form an oscillating circuit, which resonates (oscillates) on a certain frequency. At this frequency, the energy is transferred from the capacitor to the coil and vice versa in the form of voltage and alternating current, out of phase with each other by 90 degrees.

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## AC phases - What is the phase shift?

Reading time: 3 minute The phase difference (phase shift) is the non-synchronization of two or more waveforms with the same frequency. The phase shift value between two waveforms can be expressed in degrees.

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## What is an LED and how does it work

Reading time: 6 minute Light emitting diodes are almost everywhere. They can be found in cars, bicycles, street lighting, at the office, in mobile phones, televisions and much more. The reason for such a wide range of LED applicability is the advantage over traditional incandescent bulbs and recent compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs).

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## Amplitude in alternating current - effective value (RMS)

Reading time: 6 minute The amplitude of a waveform in alternating current is practically a value that is calculated on the graph, depending on the time and height of the signal. For alternating current signals we have several types of amplitude calculations such as: peak value, peak to peak amplitude, average amplitude, effective value (RMS).

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## Waveforms in alternating current

Reading time: 3 minute Among the main topics discussed in this article we list: Sine waveforms; Period of a position; Frequency; Other waveforms;

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## The basics of alternating current theory

Reading time: 5 minute In alternating current, voltage and current change their polarity; the direct current maintains the voltage and the current at a polarity, respectively a constant direction in time; Alternating current electromechanical generators, known as alternators, are much easier to build than direct current generators. The same is true for electric motors.

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## 10 types of semiconductor diodes

Reading time: 7 minute In addition to the basics, we explain the operation in detail of 10 types of semiconductor diodes: Small Signal Diode; Large Signal Diode; Dioda Zener; LED (Light Emitting Diode); Constant current diode; Schottky diode; Docka Shockley; Step Recovery Diode; Diode Tunnel (Esaki); Dioda Varicap.

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## General aspects Arduino - From the bar in Ivrea with the same name ..

Reading time: 5 minute The first Arduino appeared in 2005, as a project made by a student of the Institute of Interactive Design in Ivrea, Italy. The name that bears his name today, namely "Arduino" comes from a bar in Ivrea, the place where some of the founders met.

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