Electrotechnics IIRUC

IIRUC Electrotechnics - What is electrokinetics?

Reading time: 4 minute

Author: Ing. Doncescu Dumitru
Enterprise for the Maintenance and Repair of Computing Equipment and Professional Electronics (IIRUC)
Year of publication: 1984

Electrical and magnetic phenomena

Electrical and magnetic phenomena have been known since antiquity. The deepening of the knowledge related to these phenomena was done much later. Only at the end of the eighteenth century (in 1785), Ch. A. Coulomb, using torsion balance, determined the mechanical interactions between small electrified bodies.

A breakthrough in the development of the study and research of electromagnetism was felt in the 1800s, when the physicist A. Volta built the first electric battery. With the help of the electric battery, the electric conduction current was obtained. Thus, the study of electrolysis phenomena and other effects of electric current was allowed.

The phenomenon of electromagnetic induction

The phenomenon of electromagnetic induction discovered by M. Faraday in 1831 was the basis of technical applications for the production, transport and use of electromagnetic energy. Later, in 1873, JC Maxwell deepened and elaborated the theory of the electromagnetic field. Verified by the experience of H. Hertz in 1888, the theory of the electromagnetic field was to be later translated into practical applications and to be finalized in the transmission of information by means of electromagnetic waves.

An important role in the progress of studying and researching electromagnetic phenomena was also played by Romanian scientists: N. Vasilescu Karpen, C. Budeanu, St. Procopiu, P. Andronescu and R. Radulet.

Constantin Budeanu he actively collaborated in the work of the IEC (International Electrotechnical Commission) even before the Second World War, and in 1964 the academician Remus Radulet was elected president of the International Electrotechnical Commission.

The structure of the book

HEAD. 1. Introduction

1.1. Notions of vector calculus
1.2. Symbols of physical quantities

HEAD. 2 - Electrostatics

2.1. Electrical phenomena. Electric charge. Electric field. Vacuum electric field intensity
2.1.1. Conductors, semiconductors, insulators
2.1.2. Coulomb's formula
2.1.3. The electric field of a point electric charge
2.1.4. Measurement units
2.2. Voltage and electrical potential
2.2.1. Measurement units
2.2.2. Applications
2.3. Vacuum electrostatic field of some load distributions. Superposition.
2.3.1. Application
2.4. Electrostatic field in conductors
2.5. The electric field in substance
2.5.1. Non-polar dielectrics
2.5.2. Polar dielectrics
2.6. The intensity of the electric field inside the polarized bodies. Electrical induction
2.6.1. Temporary electrical polarization
2.7. Electric flow
2.8. Electric capacitors
2.8.1. Electric capacity theorem
2.8.2. Flat capacitor capacity
2.8.3. Equivalent capacities. Capacitors connected in series and capacitors connected in parallel

HEAD. 3 - Electrokinetics

3.1. Electrokinetic state. Conduction current intensity
3.2. Density of electric conduction current
3.3. The physical nature of the conduction electric current
3.4. Electric current in semiconductors
3.5. Vacuum electric current
3.6. Electric current in gases
3.7. Electric current in electrolytes
3.8. Printed electric fields
3.8.1. Printed acceleration electric fields
3.8.2. Printed thermal electric fields
3.8.3. Printed concentration electric fields
3.8.4. Printed electric contact fields voltaic
3.8.5. Printed thermal contact electric fields
3.8.6. Printed galvanic contact electric fields
3.8.7. Primary galvanic elements (electric cells). Pila Volta. Pila Daniel. Pila Leclanche
3.8.8. Secondary galvanic elements (batteries). Lead-acid batteries. Alkaline batteries
3.9. Electric generator (electric source). Electric motor voltage
3.10. The laws of electrokinetics
3.10.1. Electricity conservation law
3.10.2. The law of electrical conduction
3.10.3. The law of transforming energy into conductors traversed by electric currents. (Joule-Lenz Law)
3.10.4. Technical applications of the electrocaloric effect
3.11. DC circuits
3.11.1. The ideal resistor
3.11.2. The ideal source of voltage
3.11.3. The ideal source of current
3.11.4. The real source of voltage
3.11.5. Real current source
3.11.6. Equivalence of electrical sources
3.11.7. Connecting the ideal electrical sources
3.12. Topological elements of direct current circuits
3.13. Kirchhoff's theorems for direct current circuits
3.13.1. Kirchhoff's first theorem
3.13.2. Kirchhoff's second theorem
3.14. Powers in direct current circuits
3.15. Maximum power transfer theorem
3.16. Methods for solving linear direct current circuits
3.16.1. Kirchhoff's theorem method
3.16.2. Superposition method
3.16.3. Cyclic current method
3.16.4. Node stress method
3.17. Methods for simplifying electrical circuits
3.17.1. Equivalent resistance method
3.17.2. Serial connection of the regulators. Voltage divider
3.17.3. Parallel connection of resistors. The current divider
3.17.4. Vaschy's theorem
3.18. Methods of partial solving of a direct current circuit
3.18.1. Equivalent voltage generator method
3.18.2. Equivalent current generator method
3.19. Nonlinear direct current circuits
3.19.1. Calculation of circuits with nonlinear elements
3.19.2. Binding in series
3.19.3. Serial connection of a nonlinear resistor to a source
3.19.4. Equivalence of a nonlinear element with linear circuit elements
3.19.5. Binding in parallel
3.19.6. Application

HEAD. 4 - Electrodynamics

4.1. Vacuum magnetic field
4.1.1. Magnetic field line
4.1.2. Magnetic flux
4.2. Strong in magnetic field
4.2.1. Lorentz force (Magnetic force). Application
4.2.2. Laplace force (electromagnetic force)
4.2.3. Ampere's force (electrodynamic force). Application
4.3. Biot-Savart's formula
4.4. Magnetic field strength. Application
4.5. Magnetomotor voltage. Solemnity. Applications
4.6. Magnetic field in bodies
4.6.1. Temporary and permanent magnetization
4.6.2. Microscopic interpretation of magnetization
4.6.3. Magnetic field strength and magnetic induction inside bodies
4.6.4. Magnetic flux in bodies introduced into the magnetic field. The law of magnetic flux. Applications
4.6.5. The magnetic flux in a coil
4.6.6. Ferromagnetism
4.6.7. Soft ferromagnetic materials
4.6.8. Hard ferromagnetic materials
4.6.9. Ferromagnetic materials
1.7. Magnetic circuits
4.7.1. Magnetic reluctance
4.7.2. Ohm's law for one side of the magnetic circuit
4.7.3. Ohm's law for a closed magnetic circuit. Application
4.7.4. Kirchhoff's theorems for magnetic circuits. Application
4.7.5. Analogy with electrical circuits. Application
4.7.6. Calculation of magnetic circuits. Calculation of the geometry of magnetic circuits. Calculation of solemnities. Calculation of magnetic induction in the air gap. Application
4.8. Electric coils
4.8.1. Inductance of a coil. Applications
4.8.2. Own and mutual inductances
4.8.3. Coupling coefficient. Applications
4.9. The law of electromagnetic induction
4.9.1. Lenz's rule
4.9.2. Magnetic induction by transformation
4.9.3. Magnetic induction by motion
4.9.4. Application
4.10. Whirlpool currents
4.11. Hall effect
4.12. Energy in the magnetic field
4.13. The volume density of magnetic energy
4.14. Force in the magnetic field. Application

HEAD. 5 - Alternating sinusoidal current

5.1. Generation of sinusoidal alternating electromotive voltage. Alternating sinusoidal current
5.1.1. Periodic size. Period. Frequency. pulse
5.1.2. Medium value. Alternative size. Actual value. Applications
5.1.3. Characteristics of sinusoidal quantities. Applications
5.1.4. Clarifications regarding the characteristics of sinusoidal sizes
5.2. Representation of sinusoidal quantities
5.2.1. Instant representation
5.2.2. Cartesian representation
5.2.3. Representation in the complex. Applications
5.3. Ideal sinusoidal circuit elements
5.3.1. Passive circuit elements. Applications
5.3.2. Active circuit elements
5.4. Simple sinusoidal circuits
5.4.1. Impedance. Admitting. Application
5.5. Series and parallel circuits
5.5.1. RL series circuit
5.5.2. RC series circuit
5.5.3. RLC series circuit
5.5.4. Parallel RLC circuit
5.6. Resonance in sinusoidal alternating current electrical circuits
5.6.1. Resonant series
5.6.2. Reasoning in parallel
5.6.3. Resonant multiple
5.6.4. ferroresonant
5.7. Power in sinusoidal alternating current
5.7.1. Active power. Reactive power. Apparent power
5.7.2. Representation of powers in the complex. Applications
5.7.3. Maximum active power transfer
5.7.4. Theorem of conservation of complex powers in sinusoidal alternating current circuits
5.8. Methods for solving linear electrical circuits of sinusoidal alternating current
5.8.1. Ohm's law method
5.8.2. Equivalent impedance method. Application
5.8.3. Kirchhoff's theorem method. Application
5.8.4. Superposition method
5.8.5. Cyclic current method. Application
5.8.6. Node potential method. Application
5.8.7. Equivalent generator method. Application

HEAD. 6 - Transient regime in electrical circuits

6.1. The RL circuit
6.2. RC circuit
6.3. Circuit R
6.4. Applications

HEAD. 7 - Nonlinear circuits in sinusoidal regime

7.1. The nonlinear resistor
7.2. Semiconductor diode
7.3. The electric rectifier
7.4. Nonlinear coil
7.5. Nonlinear capacitor

HEAD. 8 - Equivalent diagrams of nonlinear elements for small signal

8.1. Equivalent diode scheme for small and low frequency signal
8.2. Equivalent diagram of the transistor for small and low frequency signal

HEAD. 9 - Long power lines

9.1. Phenomena on long power lines
9.2. Long power lines with losses
9.3. Application

HEAD. 10 - Electromagnetic waves

10.1. Electromagnetic field propagation
10.2. Generation of electromagnetic waves

 1,033 total hits, 2 hits today


  1. Will these young people today, beautiful and "free", at least have the patience to read something like that? I wouldn't believe it!

  2. IIRUC was the most competent and complex service enterprise in the world, reaching in 1990, to be a world monopoly!

  3. I can't imagine where we would be today if the scoundrels didn't start destroying Romanians in the fateful '89 in the name of the so-called democracy misunderstood by politicians with a semi-communist mentality combined with that of experienced "aprozarist" businessmen. in the well-known business and which leads us "victoriously" to the most devastating disaster in the history of this nation by destroying primarily the culture and science acquired and due to the intelligence of previous generations, a pity that under our eyes and our passivity destroyed everything that could !

  4. We would have been far away! Romania had just paid off its foreign debt, and had huge investments abroad, dividends, receivables… etc. The idea of ​​making an international bank hastened the union of the world economic forces, dependent on the IMF, in order to act in the destruction of Romania, using even the Romanians. Romania is a colony, and the process of destruction continues!

  5. You're still laughing. You're probably capable of that. But please, don't take out of context what I wrote, adapted to a time, and learn the Romanian language before talking! Writing and reading. Where do you see that I wrote "Romania world monopoly in electronics" ??? !!!. It was about what IIRUC was doing, until the '90s. In the field of service! Document yourself first. This attitude benefits you to be very successful in politics or journalism! Success! Don't bother to answer, because I will ignore!

  6. IIRUC is a Romanian service company and currently deals with cash registers (obviously in electronics…) and you said it was to be a world monopoly… I was too many 1st place in the galaxy and even in the universe if we give belief in the Romanian tradition that people were created by God and another life than here no longer exists.

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