Petrosani Hobby Magazine - no9 - 2006

Petrosani Hobby Magazine - no. 9 - 2006 - What is SGML?

Reading time: 3 minute

Author: Petrosani Children's Club
Quarterly magazine of the circle of electronic constructions and amateur radio
Coordinator: Prof. Kovacs Imre - YO2LTF

Did you know that ...? Was SGML (Standard Generalized Markup Language) derived from the IBM General Markup Language (GML), developed by Charles Goldfarb in the 1960s, which is considered the mother tongue of HTML and XML?

The structure of the magazine

1. Visit the YO2KBY

The radio circle, led for many years by Prof. Munteanu Nicolae - YO2CBK, is attended by a large number of students who are introduced to the secrets of amateur radio.

In addition to electronics, "fox hunting" is also taught here, a sport that combines specialized technical knowledge with physical condition and field orientation. The circle is equipped with multiple measuring and control devices, the radio station with the call sign YO2KBY it is known on all the meridians of the globe. Students who hold an amateur radio license operate this station in short or ultra-shortwave. Children passionate about radiotelegraphy learn this mode of communication - the Morse code. The diplomas obtained by the students who attended these courses every year are a testimony. The leading places obtained were rewarded by the Ministry of Education through national, annual, free camps…

2. Cranial stimulator

Following the study of electrical signals produced with various electronic schemes (made by amateurs) and used in Cranial Electrotherapy, it is proposed to make a cheap and simple circuit.

CES (Cranial Electrotherapy Stimulation) is the most popular technique for increasing intellectual capacity, being used for a long time in medicine, especially in the US, as a therapeutic means (for anxiety, depression, insomnia or drug addiction).

The assembly contains a single circuit MOS-MMC 4093, which in turn contains four AND-NOT TIGGER SCHMITT gates. At the OUT output, a sequence of two rectangular antiphase pulses with a duration of 400 milliseconds each, which is repeated after a pause of 2 seconds. The OUT output is connected to two clips (clips) by means of two flexible wires and these will be fixed on the ear lobes (the simplest clamps are made of two rectangular copper plates with the dimensions 3cm x 1cm, after which it folds in two).

The current flowing through the two clips fixed on the ear lobes is small, between 50 and 500 microamperes, adjustable from potentiometer R3 (100 KOhm) with linear variation…

3. QSLs, design and practices

Most DX stations do not ship QSLs on their own response for several reasons, such as the large number of requests, the short time spent at the location of the issue, the poor or non-existent quality of the postal services of the region concerned.

In cases similar to the above, the DX station indicates a QSL manager, this being a person or organization that receives copies by logs and deals with sending the QSLs of the respective station.

The QSL-manager is indicated by the DX station during the radio link, otherwise the QSL-manager's address can be found in amateur radio magazines and on the Internet…

4. Artificial respiration methods

a) Silvester method

When applying the Silvester method, place the injured person on his back, on a roll of clothes to widen his chest, remove and hold his tongue out with a clothespin or a dry handkerchief.

The operator sits on his knees at the injured person's head, and his arms are caught from under the elbow joint and pressed without violence on the sides of the chest (expiration), counting: one, two, three; then lift the injured person's arms up and pull back over the head (inspiration), counting: four, five, six; the injured person's arms will be pressed again on the sides of the chest, etc.

If aid is available, two people are used to apply the Silvester method, each standing on one knee on each side of the injured person, acting in accordance with the counters. A third aid keeps the injured person's tongue out…

b) Schafer method

When artificial respiration must be done by one person, it is easier to apply the Schafer method.

If this method is applied, the injured person must be placed with his feet up, with his head supported by one hand, with his face to the sides. The other hand should be extended along the head.

If possible, his tongue will be sticking out; it should not be kept, because it will be left alone. Then, the operator must sit on his knees above the injured person, facing his head, so that the injured person's hips are between the knees of the person giving help. Apply the palms on the injured person's back, on the lower ribs, embracing them laterally with the fingers bent…

c) Howard method

It is applied (instead of the Schafer method) in case the injured person has burns on the back and injuries to the hands…

5. Internet, web pages (about SGML and HTML)

Tim Berners-Lee used as a model SGML (Standard Generalized Markup Language), a growing international standard. SGML had the advantage of advanced structuring; its design took into account more the semantic structure of the document than the formatting mode.

Flexible, SGML could be described as a specification for describing other formats. Users could create new formats (DTD, Document Type Definitions) which could be understood by any SGML software product, simply by reading the definitions of the new formats first.

HTML is simply a DTD, so an application of SGML.


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