Authors: Eugen Turuta, Radu Turuta
Publisher: Miraj - Republic of Moldova
Year of publication: 1997
The first samples of integrated circuits
The first samples of integrated circuits (cadence bistable with phase shift generator) were designed and made in the laboratories of the American company Texas Instruments (TI) in 1958, and in 1959 the collaborators of this company Dj. Gilby and R. Noyce obtain the first patent for an integrated circuit (IC). After implementation in production, at the beginning of 1961, it appears on the market would be SN51 of IT logic ICs, an example repeated by Fairchild through its series of logic circuits (coincidence diagram, bistable register).
The first analog integrated circuits
In 1962 the first analog ICs from the SN52 series also appear - audio frequency amplifier, operational amplifier and video amplifier. A radical change in the principles of design and creation of IC was conditioned by the implementation by Fairchild in 1960 of planar technology for bipolar transistors.
Essential modifications were made to this technology (isoplanar, ion alloying, epitaxy, plasma chemistry), as well as to the technology of making field effect transistors (field effect transistors with pn junction were made in 1957, those in MOS in 1962).
The first logic integrated circuit in MOS
The first logical CI in MOS was made by the company RCA (USA) in 1963. It contained 16 MOS matrix field effect transistors. The '70s were a micro-revolution in the diversification of physical and schematic principles, of the technological procedures used to make bipolar IC and MOS: TTL and TTLS with modifications (FAST, ALS, AS), ECL circuits, p-MOS, n-MOS CMOS, circuits with I2L and I3L injection logic, CCD load connection circuits and others. By 1997, more than 50 technological varieties of CI were certified.
The progress of microelectronics is aimed at increasing the degree of integration of IC by increasing the number of elements and reducing their size per crystal (chip), using modern technological procedures: from the first ICs with low degree of integration (less than 100 elements per chip), called and SSI (Small Scale Integration), at CI with medium degree of integration - MSI (Medium Scale Integration - from 100 to 1000 elements per chip), followed by LSI (Large Scale Integration with 1000 - 100000 elements per chip) and finally VLSI (Very Large Scale Integration) with more than 100000 items per chip. For example, the 8086 microprocessor contains on a chip with an area of 33 mm2 - 29000 transistors, being an LSI; PENTIUM microprocessor contains on the same surface 3.1 million transistors, being, therefore, a VLSI.
The need for the variety of capsules used for CI packaging is imposed by the increase in the degree of integration. DIP capsules with more than 40 terminals have been shown to be ineffective in encapsulating VLSI ICs.
Consequently, ceramic flat capsules with 80 terminals and mini-DIP plates (SO) with miniature terminals were designed, as well as other types of capsules, such as: LCC - with contacts instead of terminals, PLCC - chip holders with the number of contacts 16 - 156 and the distance between them of 1 or 1.27 mm, with terminals in matrix position (PGA - Pin Grid Array).
International exchanges of information and radio electronic products require detailed knowledge of IC - electrical parameters, terminal configuration, capsule type, equivalents produced by other companies. A special place is occupied by CIs produced in the CIS (Commonwealth of Independent States) countries in the former USSR.
The IC nomenclature produced in these countries is extremely wide, in addition these CIs are very widespread on the markets of the former socialist countries, including Romania.
Widely used in radio, TV, video audio, electronic measuring devices, other electronic equipment, these ICs are equivalent to those produced by Western companies, having the same scheme of principle, electrical parameters and terminal configuration, but the coding mode specifically, it creates certain difficulties in determining the respective equivalents in case of their replacement in the process of troubleshooting the mentioned devices.
What does the paper present?
This paper offers the IC coding method adopted in the CIS, as well as the coding modes of most IC companies in other countries. Most CIs produced in the CIS are specified with the specification of Western equivalents (if any). The equivalents are specified and vice versa - Western CI and CIS respectively. For some more frequently used Western coded IC series, the equivalents of other companies that use different coding modes.
This information will be useful for a wide range of specialists designing radio and computer equipment, audio, video and TV equipment repairers, students from the faculties of radio electronics and computers, as well as for amateur electronics.
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