Linear integrated circuits

Linear integrated circuits - Operational amplifiers - Multiplication and division circuits

Reading time: 5 minute

Authors: Ion Dragu, Ion - Mihail Iosif
Publisher: Militara - Bucharest
Year of publication: 1981

Did you know that ...? Karl Dale Swartzel Jr. (June 19, 1907 - April 23, 1998) was the inventor of the operational amplifier, he patented the "summative amplifier" in 1941 when he worked at Bell Labs?

Integrated circuits, the dominant note of current electronic systems

Made in series in our country since 1971, passing from the stage of numerical integrated circuits, made in LTT technology, to the linear integrated circuits, superior conceptually and functionally - allow that in automation and calculation technique, in aviation and missile technique to be able to realize devices and compact electronic equipment and of low weight, able to resist to shocks, vibrations, radiations, temperatures high, etc., having at the same time a low price and increased reliability.

For this reason, an adequate technical literature is needed to facilitate numerous categories of specialists - civilian and military - documentation on all aspects related to the applications of linear integrated circuits, and especially operational amplifiers. This was the guiding idea of ​​this book.

The term operational amplifier

The term operational amplifier was used for the first time in the year 1947 by Ragazzini, which also described the fundamental properties of this class of amplifiers, when they are used together with reaction networks, linear or nonlinear. Most of the initial work focused on applications for analog simulations or solving integro-differential equations.

The first modular realization of an operational amplifier with semiconductors took place in 1962. Since then, operational amplifiers have expanded at a breakneck pace, especially by making them in the form of integrated chips.

In a period of less than ten years, the applications of the operational amplifier have diversified a lot - from its use as a subset of analog computers to universal integrated analog component, technological improvements also allowing obtaining characteristics very close to the ideal ones, which made that this device has the same wide spread and use as the transistor.

Also as a result of its outstanding performance, the operational amplifier has made it possible to carry out projects with unprecedented parameters in terms of speed, reliability, accuracy and reproducibility.

In order to be able to fully use all their possibilities, to be able to combine them ingeniously and to carry out complex projects, it is necessary to know in detail the properties of operational amplifiers, of their way of behaving in various applications, as well as of the methods of combating some of the inherent shortcomings of these integrated structures.

A difficulty encountered in the elaboration of the paper was the selection of the most significant circuits - examples of uses that allow, on the one hand, a clear understanding of the possibilities of the operational amplifier, and on the other hand, their use as basic elements for the elaboration of complex schemes.

The most representative examples are accompanied by complete calculations that offer designers the opportunity to rigorously evaluate all the constituents of a project.

Operational amplifier as a constituent element

It should be mentioned that the operational amplifier was treated in the paper not only as a singular element, but also as a constitutive element of some electronic blocks, many of them being configurations. Integrated Scale (ISL), in whose structure the operational amplifier has a decisive significance.

It goes without saying that a complete coverage of such a vast field is never possible, because the inventiveness of researchers and users constantly brings things and aspects to you and that is why we consider it particularly useful to concentrate fundamental issues in a unitary volume. it materialized following the processing of a very rich documentary material, a large part of it being mentioned in the bibliography.

The choice of issues of major interest took place both on the basis of practical experience and on the basis of covering a minus in the specialized literature published in the country.

The book is addressed to students from the faculties with electronic - electrotechnical profile, to the electronic engineers of various specializations, to all the users who have to solve theoretical and practical problems of linear integral circuits.

The structure of the book

1. BASICS

1.1. Idealized fundamental parameters
1.2. Inverter configuration
1.2.1. The transfer equation
1.2.2. Input impedance
1.2.3. Output impedance
1.3. Non-reversing configuration
1.3.1. Transfer function
1.3.2. Input impedance
1.3.3. Output impedance
1.4. Equivalent circuit model for an operational amplifier
1.5. The effect of common amplification on the characteristics of operational amplifiers
1.6. Reaction phase in operational amplifiers
1.6.1. The effect of excessive phase variation on frequency stability
1.6.2. The effect of excessive phase variation on frequency response
1.6.3. Bandwidth prediction at 3 dB
1.6.4. Phase compensation methods
1.6.4.1. Closed loop compensation method
1.6.4.2. Open loop compensation methods
1.6.4.3. Changing the open loop input impedance
1.6.4.4. Modification of the amplification characteristic in the open loop
1.7. Common rejection
1.8. Input polarization current
1.9. Offset current and voltage
1.10. Maximum response speed
1.11. Stabilization time, delay and fidelity of the impulse response
1.12. The noise

2. LINEAR AMPLIFIERS

2.1. Reduction of DC errors
2.2. Increasing the input impedance
2.3. Increasing power
2.4. Amplification adjustment
2.5. Instrumentation amplifiers
2.6. Data amplifiers with programmable amplification
2.7. Controlled power sources
2.8. Reference voltage sources
2.9. Voltage stabilizers
2.9.1. Write type voltage stabilizers
2.9.2. Parallel type voltage stabilizers
2.9.3. Switching voltage stabilizers

3. SIGNAL ANALYZERS

3.1. COMPARE
3.2. Top detectors
3.3. Circuits for calculating absolute values
3.4. Absolute value measurement circuits in devices with differential inputs
3.5. Sampling and storage circuits
3.6. Calculating the effective value

4. OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS IN NON-LINEAR CIRCUITS

4.1. Reaction limiters
4.2. Nonlinear function generator
4.3. Logarithmic amplifiers

5. MULTIPLICATION AND DIVISION CIRCUITS

5.1. Multipliers with linear approximations
5.2. Modulators and mediation multipliers
5.3. Multipliers with variable transconductance
5.4. Logarithmic multipliers
5.5. Analog dividers
5.6. Divisors by logarithm and antilogarithm
5.7. Applications of multipliers and divisors
5.7.1. Amplification adjustment
5.7.2. Compression and extension
5.7.3. Generation of polynomial functions
5.7.4. Phase detectors
5.7.5. Frequency doubles
5.7.6. Odd frequency multipliers
5.7.7. Vector adders

6. SIGNAL GENERATORS

6.1. Sinusoidal generators
6.1.1. Wien bridge oscillators
6.1.2. Oscillators with band-pass network
6.1.3. Oscillators with phase shift RC network
6.1.4. Oscillators with mains
6.1.5. Voltage controlled oscillators, with electronically synthesized inductance
6.1.6. Oscillators of order 5/2
6.2. Stable circuits with operational amplifiers
6.3. Triangular and rectangular signal generators
6.4. Ramp generators
6.5. Monostable and bistable with operational amplifiers

7. NUMERICAL-ANALOG AND ANALOG-NUMERICAL CONVERSION

7.1 Numerical-to-analog conversion (CNA)
7.1.1. Parallel-to-analog converters of parallel type
7.1.1.1. Converters with weighted resistors
7.1.1.2. NA converters to scale
7.1.1.3. NA converters with bipolar codes
7.1.2. Series dc NA converters
7.2 Analog-non-dimeric conversion (CAN)
7.2.1. Ramp converters
7.2.2. Double ramp converters
7.2.3. Incremental ramp converters
7.2.4. Voltage-frequency converters
7.2.5. Logical AN converters
7.2.5.1. Parallel type AN converters
7.2.5.2. Series-parallel converters
7.2.5.3. AN converters with successive approximations
7.3 Errors in the operation of NA and AN converters
7.3.1. Heroes in the operation of NA converters
7.3.1.1. Characteristic parameters of a CNA
7.3.1.2. Offset error
7.3.1.3. Amplification error
7.3.1.4. Linearity error
7.3.1.5. Differential linearity
7.3.2. Errors in the operation of AN converters
7.3.2.1. Characteristic parameters of CAN
7.3.2.2. Quantization error
7.3.2.3. Offset error
7.3.2.4. Amplification error
7.3.2.5. Linearity error
7.3.2.C. Differential linearity error

8. ACTIVE FILTERS

8.1. Overview
8.2. Synthesis of active filters
8.2.1. Transfer functions for low-pass networks
8.2.1.1. Second order low-pass filter with multiple reactions
8.2.1.2. Second-order low-pass filters with voltage sources
8.2.1.3. Active low-order, third-order filters with an AO
8.2.2. Transfer function for high-pass networks
8.2.2.1. Networks pass up with a single pole
5.2.2.2. The network passes up with two complex conjugate poles
8.2.2.3. Second-order high-pass filter with multiple reactions
8.2.2.4. Second-order high-pass filters with voltage source
8.2.2.5. Active three-pole high-pass filter
8.2.3. Active bandpass filters
8.2.3.1. The transfer function of a bandpass filter
8.2.3.2. Multi-reaction bandpass filters
8.2.3.3. Bandpass filters with voltage source
8.2.4. Active stop-band filters
8.3. Features Butterworth, Bessel and Cebisev
8.3.1. Butterworth features for low-pass filters
8.3.2. Bessel features for low-pass filters
8.3.3. Cebisev features for low-pass filters
8.3.4. Estimating the complexity of a filter
8.4. Active circuits of the pass-all type
8.4.1. Overview
8.4.2. First-order circuits
8.4.3. Second-order circuits
8.4.4. Pass-through filter applications are active
8.4.4.1. Delay lines made with active pass-through circuits
8.4.4.2. Phase correctors
8.4.4.3. Broadband phasors
8.5. Active circuits for frequency characteristic correction in audio installations

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A comment

  1. I made an audio equalizer from this book and it works very well. And how difficult it was to obtain operational integrated circuits in Ceausescu's time.

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