# Operational amplifiers - 222 examples and problems

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Publisher: Tehnica - Bucharest
Year of publication: 1971

#### Mass production of operational amplifiers

The realization of operational amplifiers in mass production, at a low cost, allowed a wide use of them in many applications.

As a result of their outstanding performances, it was possible to carry out projects with unprecedented parameters, in terms of accuracy, speed, operational safety and reproducibility. To make full use of their full potential they are necessary very precise design techniques.

#### What does the paper present?

This paper introduces the reader to the basics for understanding the use of operational amplifiers in the field linear circuits.

This book is based on a course on electronic equipment taught by the University of Hawaii. A number of 222 examples and problems, representing various applications, accompany and complete the work. These features, as well as the realization of the work in an easily accessible form, allow the use of the book both as a manual and as a reference work in this field.

After a general introduction, the fundamental properties of the ideal operational amplifiers are presented. In Chapter 3 an overview of the reaction is introduced, and its effects and the variation of the components on the accuracy of the operational amplifiers are analyzed in chapter 4. The transient and frequency response of the operational amplifiers, in the absence of the reaction and in its presence, are analyzed in chapters 5 and 6. Stability considerations as well as stability criteria are presented in Chapter 7, Chapter 8 including the presentation of compensation techniques. In the chapter 9 the signal rejection in the common mode, the input and output impedances as well as the rejection properties of the supply voltage are analyzed.

The input currents, the offset voltage, the speed of variation of the output voltage, the noise, as well as other limitations form the content. Chapter 1. In the annexes are summarized the results obtained in the paper as well as a series of formulas used. Also, a presentation of the main parameters of the operated amplifiers used in examples and problems is given. Are appended and answers to some of the given problems.

• properties
• applications
• Problems

#### CHAPTER II - Ideal operational amplifiers

• Non-reversing amplifier circuits
• Inverter amplifier circuits
• Differential amplifier circuits
• Differential amplifier circuits with floating inputs
• Problems

#### CHAPTER III - Reaction

• Non-inverting amplifier circuits with reaction
• Reaction reversing amplifier circuits
• Differential amplifier circuits with reaction
• Voltage repeater circuit
• Problems

#### CAM IV - Amplification accuracy

• Small variations of the operational amplifier amplification
• Small variations in reaction resistance
• Small variations of the input resistance
• Variations of several parameters
• Problems

#### CHAPTER V - Transient response and frequency characteristics of operational amplifiers

• Phase Delay Network
• Waterfall at phase delay networks
• Modified phase delay networks
• Phase advance networks
• Voltage divider networks
• Problems

#### CAM VI - Frequency characteristics and transient response of feedback amplifier circuits

• Frequency characteristics
• Transient response
• Problems

#### CAM VII - Stability of feedback amplifier circuits

• Amplifier circuits composed of phase delay networks
• The general case
• Problems

#### CHAPTER VIII - Compensation techniques

• Phase delay compensation
• Compensation by modified phase delay
• Phase advance compensation
• Advance-delay compensation of the phase
• Compensation circuits
• Problems

#### CHAPTER IX - Linear properties of real operational amplifiers

• Amplification and rejection of signals in common mode
• Input impedance
• Output impedance
• Supply voltage rejection
• Problems

#### CHAPTER X - Other properties of real operational amplifiers

• Input currents
• Input imbalance voltage
• Limitations and permissible values
• Maximum speed of variation of the output voltage
• The noise
• Problems