Wind energy generation

What is and how does a wind power generation system work?

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Wind systems are becoming increasingly known as an alternative solution for electricity production. At the residential level, a turbine can provide the necessary electricity if it is correctly designed, dimensioned and positioned in an area free of obstacles and with high wind potential.

But how do you get wind energy?

Wind turbines are equipment that transforms the kinetic energy of the wind into mechanical energy. Mechanical energy is further transformed into electricity, which is delivered in the public electricity network, stored in batteries or consumed directly.

In more detail, when the wind blows, the turbine blades rotate clockwise, capturing energy. This triggers the main shaft of the wind turbine, connected to a gearbox inside the nacelle (metal cab), to rotate.

The gearbox sends that wind energy to the generator, turning it into electricity. The electricity then moves to a transformer, where the voltage levels are adjusted to match the grid.

Wind turbine configurations

The wind turbine has a rotor with blades oriented on a horizontal or vertical axis, which, driven by the power of the wind, sets an electric generator in motion. These are generally classified according to the electrical power supplied: high power wind generators (over 100 kW) and low power (under 100 kW).

High power wind turbines

In the situation where there is already electricity supply from the public electricity network, the most suitable wind system is the one connected to the grid. This system consists of wind turbine, mains regulator, electrical control panel with fuses and meter, mains inverter and possibly an uninterruptible power supply UPS.

The wind-driven wind turbine injects electricity into the public electricity grid through the grid inverter and the electric meter. The beneficiary consumes electricity from the public network and the production of the wind turbine covers a smaller or larger part of this consumption depending on the wind speed. The beneficiary will pay to the electricity supplier only the difference between the energy consumed and the energy supplied public electricity network.

In this case, the public electricity network acts as a tank. The role of the UPS is to provide power in case of accidental power outage in the public network.

High power wind turbines are used in large communities with implementation on land (on-shore) or in the ocean (off-shore).

High power wind turbine components

Low power wind turbines

Low power wind turbine can be easily installed and operated by the user with minimum knowledge of mechanics and electricity.

It is usually installed on a pole, at a height high enough to avoid surrounding obstacles, but can also be installed on the roofs of buildings if they are not obstructed by the wind.

The low power wind turbine is built today in various variants, and can have rotor axis in horizontal plane with the rotor upstream or downstream of the wind with two, three or more blades, or with rotor axis in vertical plane, with mechanical or electronic overwind safety systems, for different wind speed ranges.

Wind turbine model the most common is the one with the rotor axis in the horizontal plane, with the rotor upstream of the wind, with three blades and a tail.

Component elements of the horizontal axis wind turbine

Low power wind turbines are equipped with electric generators with permanent magnets.

The number of magnetic poles of the generator influences both the weight and dimensions of the generator and the rotational speed at which the generator can produce electricity. Small wind turbines are actually starting to produce electricity at wind speeds of 3.5 - 4 m / s.

Low power wind turbine does not require special maintenance, is reliable and the lifespan can be very long and will give you satisfaction for a long time if it is not devastated by strong storms.

Bibliography:

https://jurnalul.ro/
https://www.semdays.ro/
https://turbina-eoliana.ascora.ro/
https://new.abb.com/
https://www.pengky.cn/
http://eee-books01.blogspot.com/

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8 comments

  1. In France and Canada, the legislation has been amended to provide for the installation of wind turbines in the vicinity of homes, houses, the minimum distance is 3 km from 300 m due to subsonic frequency sounds emitted by rotor blades under certain conditions, there have been numerous complaints due skin and nasal bleeding, dizziness and fainting, all manifestations of exposure to subsonic frequencies. Curious that in the Netherlands there were no cases.

  2. The green certificate is a title that certifies the production of electricity from renewable energy sources. The certificate can be traded, distinct from the amount of electricity it represents, on an organized market, in accordance with the law and is the support scheme to promote the production of energy from renewable sources.
    The Romanian state supports investors in green (renewable) energy through green certificates and by ensuring the legal framework for their marketing. Currently, every MWh of green energy produced from renewable sources is rewarded with a number of green certificates. These green certificates are bought by electricity suppliers, the companies being required to have a certain share of renewable energy in the basket of electricity delivered to consumers.

  3. For those who do not know the energy produced is not GREEN! It is polluting, it is not off grid, it confuses the migration of birds, there is no recycling of blades, cred and that's about it.

    1. Now we have seen that the recycling of blades seems to be a big problem. I understand that they are cut into 3 pieces and buried. Recycling cannot be done because they are made of fiberglass. Interesting.

      1. In addition to the blades, almost any turbine has a gearbox that has about 350L of oil.
        Some also have a hydraulic pitch and about 300L more oil is added.
        Do you know what happens when a hose breaks? All the oil flows around the turbine.
        So break GREEN 😉 Often you find the oil on the floor 😉 It is recycled when it changes every 5 years.

  4. Wind turbines ... with good and bad. But I think more good. However, I would mention that being dependent on wind they cannot constantly generate electricity. That is, when you need a plus, they cannot offer it unlike other types of power plants. And large amounts of electricity cannot be stored. But energy is cheap and clean. That's how they all have problems when they are disused…

  5. A wind system costs a lot, reliability is quite low. The energy produced is really green if you do not take into account the amounts of CO2 emitted for its construction!

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