Wind systems are becoming increasingly known as an alternative solution for electricity production. At the residential level, a turbine can provide the necessary electricity if it is correctly designed, dimensioned and positioned in an area free of obstacles and with high wind potential.
But how do you get wind energy?
Wind turbines are equipment that transforms the kinetic energy of the wind into mechanical energy. Mechanical energy is further transformed into electricity, which is delivered in the public electricity network, stored in batteries or consumed directly.
In more detail, when the wind blows, the turbine blades rotate clockwise, capturing energy. This triggers the main shaft of the wind turbine, connected to a gearbox inside the nacelle (metal cab), to rotate.
The gearbox sends that wind energy to the generator, turning it into electricity. The electricity then moves to a transformer, where the voltage levels are adjusted to match the grid.
Wind turbine configurations
The wind turbine has a rotor with blades oriented on a horizontal or vertical axis, which, driven by the power of the wind, sets an electric generator in motion. These are generally classified according to the electrical power supplied: high power wind generators (over 100 kW) and low power (under 100 kW).
High power wind turbines
In the situation where there is already electricity supply from the public electricity network, the most suitable wind system is the one connected to the grid. This system consists of wind turbine, mains regulator, electrical control panel with fuses and meter, mains inverter and possibly an uninterruptible power supply UPS.
The wind-driven wind turbine injects electricity into the public electricity grid through the grid inverter and the electric meter. The beneficiary consumes electricity from the public network and the production of the wind turbine covers a smaller or larger part of this consumption depending on the wind speed. The beneficiary will pay to the electricity supplier only the difference between the energy consumed and the energy supplied public electricity network.
In this case, the public electricity network acts as a tank. The role of the UPS is to provide power in case of accidental power outage in the public network.
High power wind turbines are used in large communities with implementation on land (on-shore) or in the ocean (off-shore).
High power wind turbine components
Low power wind turbines
Low power wind turbine can be easily installed and operated by the user with minimum knowledge of mechanics and electricity.
It is usually installed on a pole, at a height high enough to avoid surrounding obstacles, but can also be installed on the roofs of buildings if they are not obstructed by the wind.
The low power wind turbine is built today in various variants, and can have rotor axis in horizontal plane with the rotor upstream or downstream of the wind with two, three or more blades, or with rotor axis in vertical plane, with mechanical or electronic overwind safety systems, for different wind speed ranges.
Wind turbine model the most common is the one with the rotor axis in the horizontal plane, with the rotor upstream of the wind, with three blades and a tail.
Component elements of the horizontal axis wind turbine
Low power wind turbines are equipped with electric generators with permanent magnets.
The number of magnetic poles of the generator influences both the weight and dimensions of the generator and the rotational speed at which the generator can produce electricity. Small wind turbines are actually starting to produce electricity at wind speeds of 3.5 - 4 m / s.
Low power wind turbine does not require special maintenance, is reliable and the lifespan can be very long and will give you satisfaction for a long time if it is not devastated by strong storms.
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